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ヒマラヤ地震博物館(Himalayan Earthquake Museum)

  ネパールの復興局のセクレタリー、ビシュマ・ブッサル(Dr. Bhishma Kumar Bhusal)博士*との話で、関係部局と打ち合わせをするための計画書を早急に作るように言われていましたので、帰国後、石本恵生さん情報のいくつかの地震博物館を見学するとともに、JICAのシニアボランティアだった吉田勝さんたちがかつて構想した「ヒマラヤ地学博物館」の資料を参考にしたうえで、カトマンズ滞在中で現地事情に詳しい建築家、金子佳史さん*および佐藤展啓さんと協議し、表題のHimalayan Earthquake Museum(ヒマラヤ地震博物館)計画を作成しましたので、お知らせします。
また、国内の地震博物館のなかで中心的な位置を占める本計画の10) Referrencesに掲げたThe Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Institution; Disaster Reduction and Human Renovation(人と防災 未来センター)の河田恵昭センター長、村田雅彦関西国際大学教授はじめ、同センター関係の方々から懇切丁寧な説明をしていただきましたので、改めて感謝を申し上げます。
*ビシュマ・ブッサル(Bhishma Kumar Bhusal)さん、金子佳史さん
2016年ネパール通信9
お世話になった方々(追加)とヒマラヤ博物館構想の進展
http://hyougaosasoi.blogspot.jp/2016/06/normal-0-0-2-false-false-false-en-us-ja.html

Himalayan Earthquake Museum
Hiroji Fushimi
Visiting Professor of Kathmandu University
1)      Preface
   We can‘t stop the Himalayan earthquake, but we can reduce it’s risks. The Himalayan Earthquake Museum is one of the important facilities for improving people’s better perceptions understanding natural disaster in order to reduce it’s risks. The building of Himalayan Earthquake Museum is designed by architects, Mr. Yoshifumi Kaneko and Mr. Tenkei Sato having considerable experiences in Kathmandu.
PictureHimalayan Earthquake Museum for people’s better perceptions of natural disasters.


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Dharahara (Bhimsen Tower) in 1970’s.

2)      Introduction

I have experienced the 2015 Nepal earthquake at Kathmandu University (KU) in Dhulikel and it is my first impression that the earthquake was not a big one, as I had the similar one in Japan and there were no damages except a small crack with 1-2mm width and 1m length in my room at KU (Photo 1). Therefore, I didn’t expect such a large casualties that the central part of Nepal was suffered from victims of more than 9 thousands etc. (Photo 2) and I started to make a field survey in Kathmandu basin and also along the road route to Nawakot and to Pokhara right after the earthquake due to the KU’s closing. After my one month field survey, I found two fundamental issues to cause such a large damage; one is the people’s perception to understand such a natural disaster and the other is related to not only the building structure itself but also the lake sediment or soft ground on where buildings stand. Finally, I came to the conclusion that the Himalayan Earthquake Museum is needed in order to reduce various kind of risks caused by Himalayan earthquakes for Nepal’s future.

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Photo 1 A small crack found in the KU house.

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Photo 2 Banepa surrounded by soil cloud after the quake.

3) Two questions of people’s perception to natural disaster

AAbnormal weather of thunder shower in Kathmandu and heavy snow falls in Langtang in Himalaya
From the end of March to April, 2015, Kathmandu was encountered by the daily thunder shower (Photo 3) and Langtang valley by the longlasting snow falls (Photo 4). What on earth did people in Kathmandu think about the lake deposit soaked with rain water being soft ground as well as mountain people living along the thrust zone with sheared clay soil layer being in similar condition of soft ground in Kathmandu? People in Langtang valley noticed many Yaks died of heavy snow falls and avalanches occurring on surrounding mountain slopes, but what on earth did they notice an huge avalanche that hit their village? The same kind of avalanches disaster was reported from the Everst Base Camp.

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Photo 3 Continuous thunder shower in the last spring.

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Photo 4 The long-lusting snow falls cause avalanches indicated by red arrows.
BLessons from two mega-earthquakes of 1934 and 1833
There are plenty disaster information of the 1934 earthquake (Photo 5), but little is known about the 1833 earthquake. The former epicenter was in the east Nepal, and the latter one in the central Nepal close to the Langtang valley. Kathmandu experienced quite large scale disaster at the time of the 1934 earthquake and must also be severely destroyed in 1833 when the epicenter was much closer as compared to the epicenter of the 1934 earthquake (Photo 6). What happened to Langtang valley at the time of 1833 earthquake which epicenter was very near to their villages? What on earth did they learn from these mega-earthquakes of 1934 and 1833?

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Photo 5 Dhara Hara (Bhimsen landmark tower in Kathmandu) destroyed in 1934 and 2015.

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Photo 6 Map of Synthetic Aperture Radar Analysis showing epicenters of 2015, 1934 and 1833.

4)      Himalayan Earthquake Museum

What is the real solution for reducing the risk of an earthquake disaster? There are two different kind of buildings are coexisted in the same area; such as one destroyed and other not destroyed in Patan (Photo 7) or Bhaktapur (Photo 8) etc. We have to know the reason why there are two different types of building coexisted in the same place in order to find out the preservation policy of the important cultural heritages. When you will build a sophisticated nice-looking house on the Kathmandu lake sediments, it looks magnificent, but it will be soon broken down easily because its foundation is not solid.  However it is important not to build a house of cards and to make necessary improvement of soft ground, but nothing could be more important than the Earthquake Museum in order to have people’s improvement of disaster awareness for the future Nepal. Here, I propose the plan of Himalayan Earthquake Museum in Kathmandu and the Himalayan Disaster Data Center in Langtang valley where people can meet with researchers for the improvement of people’s perception in order to  reduce various kind of damages caused by Himalayan earthquake for Nepal’s future.

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Phot 7 Not destroyed temples (A,B) and destroyed (C) are coexisted nearby in Patan.

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Photo 8 Not destroyed temple (Center) surrounded by heavily destroyed buildings in Bhaktapur.

5)      Remarks 1 (Where to build)

From 2008 to 2010, I worked for the International Mountain Museum that I originally planned as “Mountain Museum” in 1974 and discussed the plan with His Royal Highness Kumar Khadga Bikram Shar, but it was finally built in Pokhara in 2004. It took 30 years, but we can not wait such a long time, as we still have frequent aftershocks* and nobody can tell us when and where we have the another mega-earthquake in Nepal, however we may have another big one in near future due to the collision of two continental plates, India and Asia, that causes the rising of the Great Himalayas as the highest mountain in the world. I think and I hope that the Himalayan Earthquake Museum will be built next to the destroyed Dhara Hara (Photo 9) which should be preserved for remembering and realizing the 2015 Nepal Earthquake, as our memorial monument (Photo 10, 11).
* Recent Earthquakes; National Seismological Centre
http://www.seismonepal.gov.np/index.php?action=earthquakes&show=recent

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Photo 9 Many peoples with mourning feelings were watching the Dhara Hara destroyed by 2015 earthquake.

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Photo 10 Dhara Hara preserved and Memorial Monument planned in this plan.

6)  Remarks 2 (Expected impact of the Himalayan Earthquake Museum)

. The improving people’s better perceptions for understanding natural disaster: The museum will enhance the level of educational and environmental level of Nepalese people due to the easy access to the well-equipped and organized earthquake museum. This may evolve the cultural and intellectual environment of Nepalese people in order to reduce Himalayan earthquake risks.
2. Give scientific minds to Nepalese people for the establishment of the modernized Himalayan Earthquake Museum: Establishment of a beautiful and modernized Himalayan Earthquake Museum to be opened to the public at the true city centre of Kathmandu is a big impact to people to realize the 2015 Gorkha earthquake in front of the associated Memorial Monument.
3. Increased attraction of Kathmandu: The museum at the central area of the city will become one of the important visiting sites in Kathmandu. This could result in the increase of both domestic and international visitors to Kathmandu. From the view point of my experience that I worked the International Mountain Museum (IMM) in Pokhara which received about 200,000 visitors annually, I am sure that the Himalayan Earthquake Museum in Kathmandu will receive more than double visitors as compared to that of the IMM. And also, an increased interest on Nepal expected: Expansion and deepening of knowledge of and interest to the Himalayan earthquake and its environmental background will naturally contribute to an increased international interest of the world on Nepal.
4. Contribution to the study of Himalayan earthquake sciences. The museum will contribute to educate and enhance interests on earth science and environment in general, and Himalayan earth science in particular for students, citizens and visitors of both Nepal and outside. This will contribute much to the better awareness on the environment, as well as the future development of study of Himalayan earthquake sciences.
5. The Himalayan Disaster Data Center in Langtang valley is a branch facility of the Himalayan Earthquake Museum and local people can meet with researchers for the improvement of people’s perception in order to  reduce various kind of disastrous damages caused by Himalayan earthquake.
6. Improvement on the welfare of Nepalese people: All the above items will help for the improvement of the living condition of Nepalese people in terms of reducing Himalayan earthquake risks.

7)  Remarks 3 (Negotiation of the related organizations)

As this plan, Himalayan Earthquake Museum, has a close connection to National Reconstruction Authority (NRA), Department of Mines and Geology (DMG), National Society for Earthquake Technology – Nepal (NSET) and Japan International Cooperation Agency  (JICA), it will be needed to negotiate this plan with the related organizations as soon as possible. Because in Kathmandu this spring, the DMC organized the International Workshop on Gorkha Earthquake from 24 – 25 April, and on 25 April the another workshop, Nepal Earthquake One Year Memorial Build Back Better and Resilience, cosponsored by NRA and JICA.

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Photo 11 Image views of ① Himalayan Earthquake Museum, ②Reception and Management Office, and ③Conference Room and Warehouse designed by architects, Mr. Yoshifumi Kaneko and Mr. Tenkei Sato.

8)      Remarks 3 (Total Budgets)  ( in NPR)

Grand Total            62,580,000
1. Facility Building                  43,000,000
2. Equipment                           10,000,000
3. Display Items                        2,700,000
4. Logistics Equipment            6,880,0009)    Remarks 3 (Breakdown of the expenditure)  ( in NPR)
1. Facility Building Cost                                                          43,000,000
* Main Building                    35,000,000
*Tower Presevation and Memorial Monument        3,000,000
* Others                          5,000,000
( Solar systems and parking preparation etc.)

2. Equipment for Museum Display
Description                                                           Q’ty   Unit    Price  Amount  (in NPR)
2-1         Wooden show case with sample drawers    40      Sets        50,000.             2,000,000
(1.2W x 1.0L x 1.5H to be specially made in Nepal)
2-2         Microscope with polarizing device               1  Units   500,000-                      500,000
CX31P, Olympus
2-3         Binocular microscope                                 1       Units         100,000                   100,000
Olympus SZ61
2-4         Audio Visual Equipment consisting of:          1          Lot                                  6,000,000
: Video Camera and Video Projector             1    2     Unit each
: TV screen, wall hanging type, 42″          2     Sets
: Overhead projector                             1      Set
: Slide projector                             1      Set
: Sony Amplifier 200W                                      2    Units
: Compatible Microphone                          4    Units
: Cordless  pin mic EDM Sony                        1    Unit
: Cordless transceiver  U100 Audio Technica 1    Unit
: Speaker 100W x 4 stes with Tripod             2    Units
: Screen for projection 3 x 3m Size                 2    Sets each
: LCD Projector PT-LB30U Panasonic with 3 extra bulb and mount bracket ET-PKB30
2-5         Desk Top Computer with accessories           2    Sets    200,000                 400,000
2-6         Miscellaneous Equipment                               1     Lot                      500,000
:GPS (Global Positioning System                     1     Pc
: Optical Camera                                            1     Pc
: Digital camera                                              2     Pc
2-7         : Installation/Supervision cost                                                                            500,000
Sub total in NPR          10,000,000
3. Display Items ( Indoor & Outdoor)
3-1         Wall charts, Maps & Figures                             30   figures    50,000                1,500,000
(Wooden Frame mounted, special order)
3-2         Models of Earthquake Phenomena                 2    Sets   600,000                 1,200,000
( Plastic and wood)
Sub total in NPR                     2,700,000

4. Logistics Equipment for Museum
4-1         Desks, Chairs & Cabinets & Bookshelves        1  Lot                       3,000,000
4-2         Desktop computers with accessories              5      Sets    200,000         1,000,000
4-3         Copy machine                                                   1       Unit                                     1,500,000
KM-4035 Kyocera Mita
consisting of
: Document feeder SRDF-2                                 1    Unit
: Print/Scan system                                                1    Unit
: Printing system/memory HD-70                        1    Unit
: HD-4(20GB)                                                     1    Unit
4-4         Lighting system                                                  1     Lot                                              800,000
4-5         Generator, 20 KVA                                            1     Unit                                         2,000,000
4-6         Miscellaneous Equipments consisting of:              1     Lot                                    600,000
: Sample cleaners                                             2     Pcs.
: Desk Lamps                                                     5      Pcs.
: Room cleaners                                                2      Units
: Bookshelves                                                    5      Units
: Fax machine/ Telephone Setss                    2      Units
4-7         Installation/Supervision cost                                                                                      780,000
Sub total in NPR                               6,880,000

9)   References

After I visited and studied three earthquake museums in Japan indicated below, I wrote up this plan with an architect, Mr. Yoshifumi Kaneko.
1) The Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Institution; Disaster Reduction and Human Renovation
http://www.feel-kobe.jp/_en/sightseeing/spot/?sid=75
2) Awaji Island Quake Museum

Awaji Island quake museum offers shocks and survivors


3) Tokyo Memorial Museum for the Kanto Earthquake Disaster
http://www.tokyoessentials.com/kanto-earthquake-memorial-museum.html

11)  Appendix

The 2015 Nepal earthquake poster exhibitions of Kantipur English High School students was held in Kyoto, Japan, on 29 June, 2016 and Acting Nepalese ambassador Mr. Gahendra Rajbhandari declared the opening. It was interesting that I found 18 Dharahara posters among 80 and even young generation has an emotional (sympathetic) feeling to it at where I am planning to construct the Himalayan Earthquake Museum and hoping to exhibit the wonderful posters, too.

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Acting Ambassador Mr. Gahendra Rajbhandari attending the earthquake poster exhibition held in Kyoto.

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“The Memorable Dharahara” Jensha Kattel.

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“Load, Please Help Us.” Jensha Kattel.

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“Teaching Hospital” Rajshree Shrestha.