Any how, I must say “Thanks of Millions” for the mighty gust of wind that we had last night from 20:05 to 20:35 and it had blown off the notorious smog layer. That is why we could see the Himalayan Peaks from Kathmandu University (KU) this morning before the sun rise. Here, I am sending you some of these photos taken from my room in KU. “Good Luck and Namaskar” to you all from Hiroji Fushimi.
The first photo（写真１） shows Mt. Gauri Shankar and the second（写真２） Mt. Numbur.しかしながら、日の出を過ぎると、まだ残っていたか、新たなスモッグの上限高度が上昇し、神々の座はふたたび大気汚染の中に埋没していきました。
４月中旬は幸運を呼ぶ祭り、バクタプールのビスケット・ジャットラ＊の季節です。昨年は2015年ネパール大地震 の直前で、京都の祇園祭のように山車を引っ張る盛大な行事がおこなわれました。今年は無事だった五重塔のニャタポラ寺院前のタウマディ広場の一角には舞台 が設えられ（写真３）、歌と踊りで集まっていたたくさんの人たちを元気づけているように見えました。しかしながら、１年たってもまだ街のいたるところに 地震の被害跡（写真４）がむきだしで、とうてい祭り気分を楽しむようにはなれないように感じました。
最近はミャンマー、日本の熊本、 エクアドルなどでも大地震が起こっていますが、カトマンズでは今年になってから、１週間に１度程度はマグニチゥード４～５クラスの余震＊が続いています。＊ Recent Earthquakes; National Seismological Centre
http://www.seismonepal.gov.np/index.php?action=earthquakes&show=recent4月25日には2015年ネパール大地震の１周年を迎えますので、 ネパールの鉱山・地質局が中心になって、24日と25日にカトマンズで、震源地名のゴルカを銘うったゴルカ地震国際会議＊を開催します。発表者は４０名ほどの小じんまりした国際会議になるようです。＊ International Workshop on Gorkha Earthquake, Nepal
その国際会議＊では、2016年ネパール通信２＊＊でお伝えした下記のヒマラヤ地震博物館の要旨について報告します。1995年の神戸・淡路地震の後に地 震博物館ができています（写真７）が、ヒマラヤ地震博物館の場合は、要旨の末尾に書いたように、ネパールに人が愛着を感じ、カトマンズのランドマークにも なっていたが、根元から破壊されたこのタワー（写真８）をそのまま保存し、その横に２階建てぐらいの地震博物館を建てる話をネパールの方に話したら、広島 に行ったことがあるその人は「原爆の博物館」みたいだと興味を持ってくれました。
＊Tentative programme for Oral presentation
Himalayan Earthquake Museum
Visiting Professor of Kathmandu University
I have encountered the 2015 Nepal earthquake at Kathmandu University (KU) in Dhulikhel and it is my first impression that the earthquake was not a big one, as I used to experience the similar one in Japan and there were no damages except a small crack with 1-2mm width and 1m length in my room at KU. So, I didn’t expect such a large casualties that the central part of Nepal was suffered from victims of more than 9 thousands etc. and I started to make a field survey in Kathmandu basin and also along the road route to Nawakot and to Pokhara right after the earthquake due to the KU’s shut down. After my one month field survey, I found two fundamental issues to cause such a large damage; one is the people’s perception to natural disaster and the other is related to not only the building itself but also the lake sediments on where buildings stand. Finally, I came to the conclusion that the Himalayan Earthquake Museum is needed in terms of reducing various kind of risks caused by earthquake for Nepal’s future.
２）Two questions of people’s perception to natural disaster
A）Abnormal April weather of thunder shower in Kathmandu and heavy snow falls in Langtang
From the end of March to April, Kathmandu was encountered by the daily thunder shower and Langtang valley by the longlusting snow falls. What on earth did people in Kathmandu think about the lake deposit soaked with rain water being soft ground as well as mountain people living along the thrust zone with sheared clay soil layer being in similar condition of soft ground in Kathmandu? People in Langtang valley noticed Yaks died of heavy snow falls, but what on earth did they notice an avalanche that would hit their village?
B）Lessons from two mega-earthquakes of 1934 and 1833
There are plenty disaster information of the 1934 earthquake, but little is known about the 1833 earthquake. The former epicenter was in the east Nepal, and the latter one in the central Nepal close to the Langtang valley. Kathmandu experienced quite large scale disaster at the time of the 1934 earthquake and must also be severely destroyed in 1833 when the epicenter was much closer as compared to the epicenter of the 1934 earthquake. What happened to Langtang valley at the time of 1833 earthquake which epicenter was very near to their villages? What on earth did they learn from these mega-earthquakes of 1934 and 1833?
3）Himalayan Earthquake Museum
What is the real solution for reducing the risk of an earthquake disaster? There are two different kind of buildings are coexisted in the same area; such as one destroyed and other not destroyed in Patan and Bhaktapur etc. We have to know the reason why there are two different types of building coexisted in the same place in order to find out the preservation policy of the important cultural heritages. When you will build a sophisticated nice-looking house on the Kathmandu lake sediments, it looks magnificent, but it will be soon broken down easily because its foundation is not solid. However it is important not to build a house of cards and to make necessary improvement of soft ground, but nothing could be more important than the Earthquake Museum in order to have people’s improvement of disaster awareness for the future Nepal. Here, I propose the construction of Himalayan Earthquake Museum in Kathmandu and the Himalayan Disaster Data Center in Langtang valley where people can meet with researchers and the improvement of people’s perception noticed in the chapter 2 will be needed in terms of reducing various kind of damages caused by earthquake for Nepal’s future.PS
From 2008 to 2010, I worked for the International Mountain Museum that I originally planned as “Mountain Museum” in 1974, but finally built in Pokhara in 2004. It took 30 years, but we can not wait such a long time, as we still have frequent aftershocks and we may have another big one in near future due to the collision of two continental plates, India and Asia, and the rising of the Great Himalayas. It may be one idea that the Himalayan Earthquake Museum will be built next to the destroyed Bhimsen Tower which shoud be preserved for showing and realizing the 2015 Nepal Earthquake.