1)Dream of the Himalayan Uplift Theory

By Hiroji Fushimi
The Himalayan uplift theory proposed by Koushiro Kizaki (Hokkaido Newspaper Column “Aurora” June 29, 1985), who said “I created a model where mountain ranges rise”, goes as follows: “Granite rocks called migmatite that exist within the mountains rise up in a fireball-like shape with a diameter of several kilometers. This is because granite is the lightest rock in the Earth’s crust and rises up in the same way as air bubbles in water due to the Earth’s gravity field. This undoubtedly created the mountain ranges by pushing up the layers of the Earth’s crust. (Omitted) Kizaki asked a computer user, who was his collaborator, to perform numerical experiments. However, the result was pessimistic. Although the granite rock rises up at a speed of about one meter per ten thousand years, the surface of the Earth only uplifts a few hundred meters. This is not enough to create mountain ranges.” Kizaki then wrote, “I have not given up on this model yet, but I am looking for a new one by chasing my dreams to places like Nepal.”

Fig.1 Geological Sketch Map of the Khumbu.

Fig.2 Uplift Mechanism of the Himalaya

First of all, please take a look at the geological sketch of the Khumbu region in Figure 1. Most of the Khumbu region, which is about 20 square kilometers around the world’s highest peak, Mount Everest, is made up of red and brown-colored granite and migmatite, with a few yellow bands of Tethys sedimentary deposits, such as those shown in green at the top of Mount Everest. Note that the red arrow in Figure 1 indicates the fireball-shaped granite rock shown in Figure 2, which penetrates the base of Mount Everest. What should be emphasized first is that the fireball-shaped granite rocks or migmatite rock bodies that Kizaki emphasizes are distributed throughout the vast base around Mount Everest and actually support the base of Mount Everest on a scale that is about a hundred times larger than the two-kilometer-square fireball-shaped granite rock shown in Figure 2.
In my view, the factors contributing to the formation of Mount Everest (Figure 2) include 1) uplift due to the collision and subduction of the Indian subcontinent with the Asian continent, and 2) uplift caused by fireball-shaped granite, as Kizaki pointed out, while the factors leading to its descent include 3) normal fault activity sliding down the northern slope directly below Mount Everest, and 4) erosion caused by weathering. During the Himalayan earthquakes in May 2015, changes in these factors may have contributed to the formation of the highest peak.
Although Kizaki seemed to have given up on the theory of the “several-kilometer-diameter granite,” claiming that “the surface only rises a few hundred meters, which is insufficient for the formation of a mountain range, “However, if there were magma-type granite and migmatite formations of about 2 square kilometers, which are about 100 times larger, simple calculations show that it would be tens of thousands of meters, or hundreds of times larger than several hundred meters. Therefore, I first dreams that the Himalayan mountain range might have been formed in this way.
However, although the oil painting of the region drawn by Mr. Kizaki (Figure 3) has what appears to be a yellow band (yellow text and arrow) representing a certain layer, the fiery ball-shaped intrusive granite depicted in Figure 2 is not present. Kizaki should not have missed the geological structure of the fiery ball-shaped granite, which is emphasized as an important element in the formation of the Himalayas. Even if it was difficult to see due to the clouds from the left of the screen, Kizaki should have been able to find it, or perhaps he did not see the outcrop of the fiery ball-shaped granite in Figure 2.

Fig.3 Prof. Kizaki’s oil painting.

Fig,4 Prof. Kizaki staring at Mt. AnnapurnaⅡ.

Therefore, as a guide on Mr. Kizaki’s first trip to the Himalayas, I wanted him to see the large outcrop in Figure 2. However, it was difficult to reach the site in the Khumbu region during the monsoon season, so we decided to go to the upstream area of the Madi River south of Annapurna II peak in central Nepal, which has good transportation even during the rainy season. At that time, Mr. Kizaki was impressed by gazing at Annapurna II peak with vague cloud even in the monsoon, while thinking about “looking for a new model” (Figure 4).
Finally, let’s dream of the changes in the world’s highest peak. When the Everest peak, which is covered with Tethys Sea sediments such as the yellow band, loses the Tethys Sea sediments in the eroded summit area, the future Everest peak will become a granite mountain to the top, and will lose altitude. Then, the title of the world’s highest peak may be given to the high peaks of the Karakoram Mountains, such as Mt. K2. Conversely, it is estimated that the current Manaslu and Makalu peaks, which are entirely granite to the summit, had several hundred meters of Tethys Sea sediments on their summits in the past, so they may have competed for the title of the world’s highest peak at that time. However, after the Tethys Sea sediments in the summit area were eroded, and the mountain became a granite mountain, both peaks lost altitude and gave way to the current Everest peak as the world’s highest peak. I would like to reinforce Mr. Kizaki’s theory of Himalayan uplift with this dream, but will Mr. Koushiro Kizaki, who has the Buddhist name “Mountaineer Koutoku Koji,” residing in realm of the dead, simply dismiss my dream as a delusion? “Mountainous Residence Koutoku,” who was not only “Koutoku” but also “Higher Virtue,” join hands!

2)Kizaki is a free spirit through and through!

By Hiroji Fushimi
Kizaki’s unforgettable journey to the Annapurna Mountains was his first Himalayan trip, which he took after being told, “Please don’t call me ‘sensei'(teacher).” It was in 1974, when Kizaki was 50 years old and I was 33 years old. Since then, although it may be presumptuous of me, I have been calling him Kizaki-sensei because he supervised my master’s thesis as well as my graduation thesis for the Hokkaido University Geological Classroom.
When Kizaki first came to the Himalayas, he had already left Hokkaido University and moved to Ryukyu University, while I was being taken care of at Nagoya University. Perhaps it was because we had both been driven away from our old nest, Hokkaido University, which was shaking with the security treaty struggle at the time, that the change in the name from “sensei” to “san” occurred. It could have been a farewell notice indicating that we should not bother each other anymore, or perhaps it was an expulsion notice from the “Kizaki School.” For that reason, I never received a call to join Kizaki’s team for the Himalayan joint research conducted in the 1980s.
After being expelled from the so-called learning house of the geology classroom at Hokkaido University, we had to spread our wings in a new land, the Himalayas. First, we advanced the concept of a “mountain museum” and, in 1974, at the behest of Hisao Ushiki, we built the “Himalaya Bawan (Hall)”, a research facility for researchers to stay in Kathmandu. Two years later, in 1976, Okitsugu Watanabe has taken the lead in collecting funds, and Kazuyuki Shiraishi and I designed the “Kathmandu Club House”, which was built on the property of our late Nepalese friend Kusan Norbu Tawa. Collaborative research on the geology and glaciers of the Himalayas progressed, and the results of Himalayan research by those who stayed in these facilities were realized as “Geological Research on the Nepal Himalayas” and “Research on Glaciers and Climate in the Nepal Himalayas.” As a result, we were able to win the 10th and 17th Chichibu-no-Miya Memorial Academic Awards in the 1973 and 1980 fiscal years, respectively. Although it was a feeling that we felt every time we went to the Himalayas, we were able to immerse ourselves in an atmosphere of boundless freedom of research that we had longed for but could not achieve in our old home at the geology classroom at Hokkaido University.
Looking back now, Prof. Kizaki, who must have watched us closely from Okinawa as we had to fly in the new land of the Himalayas after losing our learning house, might have helped me to fly freely like the proverbial “lion cub drop” as if to help me break free from the “Kizaki teacher’s birdcage.” In other words, it seems that it was a unique practice of free education by Prof. Kizaki. I am grateful to be reminded again of the fact that it was Prof. Kizaki who taught me the priceless meaning of “freedom.”
In “Remembering Honorary Member Koshiro Kizaki” (source 1) by Kazuyuki Shiraishi, it is pointed out that Kizaki’s “wanderlust” symbolizes his innate free spirit, as he was excited about moving to new schools despite changing elementary schools five times and traditional middle schools twice due to following his father, who was a mining engineer and moved to various coal mines and mines throughout Japan. Perhaps the origin of Kizaki’s decision to switch from Hokkaido University to the University of the Ryukyu was also due to his yearning for freedom.Personally, during my own journey around the world from 1963 to 1966, traveling eastward and circling the globe, I experienced about two and a half years of wandering, traveling by bicycle in Europe and Southwest Asia after receiving funding from Arctic Ocean research and joining the Geological Glacier Expedition in Nepal, so I feel a strong affinity with Kizaki’s “wanderlust” and his reverence for the freedom that I felt during his travels.
Kizaki, in his “Greetings” in “A Journey in Nepal-Sketch Collection-” (source 2) published upon his retirement from the University of the Ryukyu in 1990, states that “the best thing about a university is its spirit of freedom and tolerance, and looking back, I feel grateful that I was allowed to do as I pleased under its influence.” I am deeply grateful to Kizaki, who practically taught us this spirit of freedom and tolerance.

Photo 1 Prof. Kizaki in his atelier.

Photo 2 “Morning in Periche, Jan. 2003”

By the way, Kizaki’s career as an artist began when his wife gave him paints and a sketchbook to take with him on his first journey to the Himalayas, as stated in the “Afterword” of source 2. After retiring from the University of the Ryukyu, he began painting oil paintings of the Himalayas and other scenes in an atelier (photo 1) in Naha City, where he could use a room in a former student’s office. This also seems to demonstrate Kizaki’s unique free-spirited way of life as an artist. I have a painting gifted to me by Kizaki, titled “Morning in Periche, Jan. 2003” (photo 2) displayed in my room, and I remember Kizaki, who was a true free spirit, fondly.

1. Kazuyuki Shiraishi (2022). Remembering Honorary Member Koushiro Kizaki. http://www.geosociety.jp/uploads/fckeditor/NEWS_BN/2022-06.pdf.
2.  Koushiro Kizaki (1990). Journey to Nepal – Sketch Collection. Koushiro Kizaki Retirement Memorial Meeting, Sun Printing Co., Ltd., 86p.

◆「ChatGPT」感想一口メモ (1)

「下記の日本語を英語に直してください」と入力すると、瞬時にやってくれるスピードに加えて、スムースな英文の作成能力の高さに驚きました。こうしたAIの実用化は、比較的単純な知的労働を大きく変える可能性が指摘されていますが、少なくとも、将来の英語教育にかなり影響するだろう、と思いました。ただ、原文が2000字程度でしたので、いっぺんにやろうとすると、「Hmm…something seems to have gone wrong. Maybe try me again in a little bit.」などと表示され、一括英文化はできませんでしたので、原文を500字程度に分けて、行いました。個人的なことですが、執筆するときはグーグルなどの検索頼りで、辞書を引くことが最近はなくなりました。手近にあった辞書類は手の届かない本棚の隅に追いやられた状況です。さらなるAIの進展と検索の便利化とともに、そうした執筆形態の変化のもとにAI依存が進行していくと、上記の「比較的単純な知的労働を大きく変える可能性」とともに、やがては自分自身の思考能力の低下をきたすかもしれない、と感じています。

◆「ChatGPT」感想一口メモ (2)

「Who is Hiroji Fushimi?」と「ChatGPT」に質問すると、間髪を入れずに「Hiroji Fushimi is a Japanese activist and former political prisoner. He was a member of the Japanese Red Army, a militant communist group, and was arrested in 1971 for hijacking a Japan Airlines flight from Tokyo to Fukuoka. Fushimi was sentenced to life in prison for his role in the hijacking, but was released in 1995 after serving 24 years in prison. Since his release, Fushimi has been active in promoting peace and social justice, and has been involved in various activist causes in Japan and internationally. He has been a vocal critic of Japan’s military alliance with the United States and of the Japanese government’s policies towards Okinawa and other regions of Japan.」と回答してきたのには驚きました。「ChatGPT」はいかにも自信ありげに「伏見碩二は日本赤軍の政治犯」だというのですから、からかわれているような気がするとともに、「ChatGPT」への不信感が増大しました。「ChatGPT」は英訳には使えるが、少なくとも人物評価には問題がありそうです。ちなみに上記の人物評価を和文に訳してもらうと「伏見広治は、日本の活動家であり元政治犯です。彼は、過激な共産主義グループである日本赤軍のメンバーであり、1971年に東京から福岡への日本航空のフライトをハイジャックしたことで逮捕されました。伏見はハイジャックの役割により終身刑を宣告されましたが、24年間の服役後の1995年に釈放されました。釈放後、伏見は平和と社会正義の促進に活発に取り組み、日本や国際的にさまざまな活動家の原因に関与しています。彼は日本の米国との軍事同盟や沖縄などの日本の他の地域に対する日本政府の政策に対して、積極的な批評家となっています。」と回答してきました。

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The Himalayan uplift theory proposed by Koushiro Kizaki (Hokkaido Newspaper Column “Aurora” June 29, 1985), who said “I created a model where mountain ranges rise”, goes as follows: “Granite rocks called migmatite that exist within the mountains rise up in a fireball-like shape with a diameter of several kilometers. This is because granite is the lightest rock in the Earth’s crust and rises up in the same way as air bubbles in water due to the Earth’s gravity field. This undoubtedly created the mountain ranges by pushing up the layers of the Earth’s crust. (Omitted) Kizaki asked a computer user, who was his collaborator, to perform numerical experiments. However, the result was pessimistic. Although the granite rock rises up at a speed of about one meter per ten thousand years, the surface of the Earth only uplifts a few hundred meters. This is not enough to create mountain ranges.” Kizaki then wrote, “I have not given up on this model yet, but I am looking for a new one by chasing my dreams to places like Nepal.”
ヒマラヤの上昇モデルのイラストを期待していたのであるが、その答えは「申し訳ありませんが、私は画像を作成することはできません。私はテキストに基づいて回答を提供するAI言語モデルです。何か他にお力になれることがありましたら、遠慮なくお知らせください」だった。使用中の無料ソフトは「AI言語モデル」だそうで、イラストも表示できる別の高級ソフトがあるようだ。そこで、「チャットGPTですごいのはイラストの作成だ。こんな絵柄にしてほしいと、2~5点ほど要望を指示すると、 それらしいイラストが提示される」と言われていますが、画像を表示してもらうにするには、どうしたら良いですか、と再度たずねると、「チャットGPTは、文章に基づいてテキストで回答を提供するだけのAI言語モデルであり、画像を表示することはできません。もし画像を表示してほしい場合は、別の方法でアクセスしてください。たとえば、オンラインの画像検索エンジンを使用する、または別のオンラインツールを使用することができます。申し訳ありませんが、お力になれることがあればお知らせください」とのことでした。

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2023/03/23 09:40

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1)毎日新聞社説 2023/04/23
広がるチャットGPT 利便性に偏らない議論を
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チャットGPT 利用ルールの議論急げ

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伏見 碩二 様
私的には遊ぶ?には面白いものが出てきたな という思いです。
2)窪田 開拓
伏見 様

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