カトマンズ大学の講義の主な内容は、「ネパール・ヒマラヤの環境変化」で、2015年３月初めからはじまりました。1965年以来、ネパール・ヒマラヤの氷河を中心にした山岳地帯の環境変化を調査してきましたので、「Environmental Changes of the Nepal Himalaya」が講義のテーマです。そのため、その間に撮りためた４万枚ほどの写真資料（参考資料１）などを利用して、修士課程１年目の受講学生たち（写真２）にヒマラヤ地域の環境課題の実態を理解してもらうように努めました。
This lecture helps the student for proper use of computer and more knowledge for it.
CREATE YOUR OWN WEBSITE FOR YOUR CLASS TOGETHER.
Learn different skill and ideas to create website step by step.
Website remain all the data and document in the cloud.
Never miss the data and easy to open for public.
カトマンズ大学講義の思い出（２）として、ここでは2016年の講義クラスの学生たち中から、Ajit Sapkotaさん（写真７の左）とMukesh Raiさん（写真７の右）のレポートをとりあげます。レポートの内容は、ネパール中央部のカリガンダキ川流域の見学旅行の感想文です。
４－１）Ajit Sapkotaさん の自己紹介
Engineering Geologist at Trishuli Jal Vidhyut Company Ltd
Experienced Research Fellow with a demonstrated history of working in the environmental services industry. Skilled in Mineral Exploration, AutoCAD, Geology, ArcGIS, and Tunneling. Strong research professional with a M.S by Research focused in Glaciology from Kathmandu University.
New Form Entry: Contact Form
Experience of Muktinath Fieldwork
This was my second visit to Muktinath. Last time I went to muktinath with my colleagues in Central Department of Geology, Tribhuvan University. We were with a German Professor and we learnt a lot about metamorphism grades and inverse metamorphism, location of Main Central Thrust (MCT), South tibetan detachment fault system (STDS) and microstructures that shows correlation with the regional structures. This field trip was a revision of that field work. In this field work we just differentiated the sedimentary and metamorphic terrain and rocks of Higher and Tethys Himalaya. Studied folded and faulted rocks. On the way, our jeep was broken and at that time we searched ammonite fossils. Overall it was a pleasant field trip.
Thank you to have sent me your report of Muktinath excursion.
I am very much thankful for you to have made GPS measurement and taken photos while you have been to Mukutinath. By the way, your report is too much concentrated in geological features, as you graduated from Departmant of Geology, TU. But, I do hope you will be interested in not only geology but also other subjects in environmental science.
I hope you will find out the differences between the two GPS Compilation Maps done by Mr. Satoru Hishiba and you can utilize them for your future field survey.
“Good Luck and Namaste” to you from Hiroji Fushimi.
I am super pumped to announce that I have joined NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory as postdoc in earth science division tropospheric composition group. I will be working with Vivienne Payne, Duane Waliser, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, and Bin Guan. I will be using transport diagnostic tools that leverage atmospheric river concept by using chemistry reanalysis and new satellite products to analyze and characterize long-range transport phenomena and quantify impacts on local air quality extremes. I am equally indebted to my past and current supervisors who supported and have faith in me. I am hoping to learn and contribute more during my tenure. And yes, I am here to #DareMightThings.
Date: 30 March, 2016
Impression on Jomsom-Muktinath excursion
Our journey begun from Kathmandu up to Muktinath and motive of this trip was geological observation throughout the trail. In a very first day of our trip we were already late due to traffic jam and we destined to reach up to Tatopani (Finally we make it through). We had late dinner there around 9:00 pm. Travel was tiresome so we intended to have some drink so get permission from sir and started getting it.
In second day, we traveled through Lower Mountain to higher mountain. For geological observation, we stuck in different section of the trail. Our respected sir had briefing about the different thrust formation and the story behind the Himalayan mountain formation and about the plate tectonic theory which was interesting.
I’ve gone to Muktinath 3 years before so it was my second time. That time I had reached up to Muktinath by trekking. That was my most memorable moment in my life however this time I have been traveling through vehicle (not bad though). We have crossed trough Ghansa, Lete, Marpha, Jomsom to Muktinath. At Lete we had lunch (probably late lunch) because we were having food around 2pm. Our trip was just fixed for only six days so all the things were turn out in so rush even we had not time for feeding our self indeed; we were having such a pleasant time. I have seen the life of high mountain people. There is no other great thing rather than livelihood on pristine environment. I am ready to admit the truth that the people living Manag and Mustang are the luckiest people (I must say that) despite being the lack of other facility. However, I just love the way they living through.
Now there is road excess so we can’t say these places are marginalized. In my last visit I came to know that the price of land has dramatically increased with the excess of road (story from Marpha village). In the name of development road networks are constructing without considering other aspect like environmental issues and eco-tourism. Roads are haphazardly constructing which adding more trouble in trekking rout. In my opinion development should be done by incorporating sustainable development.
On the way, we have visited to waterfalls and the deepest gorge in the world. There was constructing a bridge. I am on my way to Jomsom heading northward direction. Slowly ice cover Mountain started to see in south direction. These high mountain ridges acts like the physical barrier to the heavily laden moisture contain in the moisture thus there is less precipitation in leeward side. As I go up I started top seeing vegetation. All the houses are in clustered form. While seeing this I am thinking myself how beautifully manage to live I this way.
After Lete, we can observe the plain surface. Snow fed river is flowing and meandering bank to bank. We can vividly see the glacial as well as fluvial deposition. There was one place (forgot the name place) where we can see the mountain frontal thrust separating higher and lower Himalayas.
After traveling to several Kilometer our vehicle got a problem so we stuck over there and our sir had recommended for searching ammonite on the flank of river. All of us roam around the river for ammonite. After one and half hour of break we headed to Jomsom. We were keeping stopping for the observation in some places it made difficult by strong windy situations.
Last time I had noticed that the trees leaf and the trunk around the Jomsom premises were unidirectional. First time I was surprised but came to know it happened so by flow of wind direction. Since in these places wind always blow south to north direction along the river valley. So I did try to clarify my understanding to my friend as well.
While crossing Marpha village we can see apple farm extended in large area. After tourism, apple farming is the main source of income (I guess, don’t have statistical data). In the farm land we can see the variety of species like naked barley, vegetables, potato and the medicinal plants. In my last time visit we had interaction programme over here so I knew that Marpha village does have one main Leader (Mukhiya in Nepali) who is like the king always works for the justice of his people and they obey his order. In other aspect like waste management system Marpha village is always ahead. They collect, transport and dispose on landfill site which is away from the settlement area. I have seen the pile of firewood on the rooftop of their house. The amount of pile determines how wealthy they are (I heard this).
Our friends were insisting to reach up to Muktinath so we crossed without resting on Jomsom. We departed around 5pm from Jomsom. Some of my friend were discussing about river discharge. In evening time river discharge will be higher than morning time because insolation influence on ice melting. After 3-4 km away from Jomsom one woman had asked us for the lift but our driver simply say no, he rejected her appeal. I don’t have an answer and I felt sorry for her. Moving few Kilometer ahead our sir had described about the geological feature which was distinct exposed to the external environment. While watching this gigantic body I felt Mother Nature has given wonderland. Think myself what if we were able to travel in geological time scale. It sound creepy but I am always ponder around the imagination which is out of our world.
After crossing the bumpy road we reached to Muktinath. We’ve seen beautiful sunset in chilly environment. There is holy temple by time of reaching there it was closed but luckily we able to enter even in evening time because army people had come from far away. This made our wich come true for worshiping the god. It was too late to return Jomsom by time of worship so we had supposed to live over there but me failed to convince our driver dai. He argued about the probability of snow fall. Finally he turns out right because while returning from Muktinath to Jomsom we experienced the snowfall event (Thanks for the driver dai ). If he wouldn’t insist we would face the problem tomorrow morning while going down to Jomsom. Finally we back to Jomsom to spend a night. After having late dinner we slept.
I woke up early in the morning. Intention was to get fresh air and take photograph. I roam around Jomsom market and took some photo. I had cow milk the taste was just like wow!!! But the price was quite expensive but enjoying drinking milk.
We bought the apple, sukuti, juice etc. and headed back to Ktm. In that day we arrived at Pokhara. We went to see sunrise at Sarangkot followed by Mountain museum visit. We had gone to pay visit to Stupa by boating. We went to pup to have some relaxation. So we had a lot of fun in Pokhara as well. In by next day we return from Pokhara to KTM. On the way we visited to Malekhu for geological observation. In this was how our Muktinath excursion had ended up.
We had ended our excursion very beautifully. We enjoyed together. I enjoyed a lot with the nature. Wishing the day will come soon to visit again this place. I never tired of roam around. This journey left so many nostalgic events. Many moments lefts on my mind to remember. As closing remarks I would like to remember a statement that spell out by Eric Valley “I am a traveller not a tourist”. THANK YOU!!
Thank you to have sent me your report of Muktinath excursion.
I think you have sufficiently observed various kind of environmental issues such as a life of high mountain people, their problems of sustainable development, waste management system and firewood. Besides the environmental issues, you have described the glacial as well as fluvial deposition, river discharge changes and even to unidirectional tree trunk caused by the prevailing wind direction. However, your description becomes quite less after Pokhara area as compared to that in the upper Kali Gandaki. Finally, Eric Valley says “I am a traveller not a tourist”, but I don’t know the difference between the two, and I myself was a wanderer when I was a student making a round trip of our earth, then became a glaciological cosmopolitan going to China, Mongolia, Siberia, Alaska and even to Europe. Now, I am a regional environmentalist for the Third Pole, Himalaya. As the last comment to your adequate report, I will be happy if you could write your report within 800 words.
Against all odds, I am super excited to join NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a postdoc fellow in earth science division’s tropospheric composition group. I will be using transport diagnostic tools that leverage the atmospheric river concept in terms of aerosol/ trace gases by using new satellite observations and chemical reanalysis products.
A new challenge to Glaciologists?
Thank you very much for your prompt reply to my proposal.
This will be my new challenge as a Himalayan glaciologist.
Are there high school students in Khumjun school?
Please send my Namaskar to Mr. SHAMBHU PRASAD BASTOLA.
“Good Luck and Better Build Back” to you all from Hiroji Fushimi.
If possible, I would like to have my 2 hours lecture 3 times
a week (for example; Monday, Wednesday and Friday) and
the total lecture will be around 20 times and 40 hours.